laodie2019-04-14 21:17:13

BAD OPERA SINGING - all modern "Rossini" tenors

 

 

在楼下这个 听一听世界top罗西尼男高音石倚杰华丽的声音演唱的罗西尼优美的曲目 我跟了一贴就是以上的视频,明显帖主对罗西尼男高音及其历史和要求不了解,所以对我的跟帖大为光火,不知者不怪。为什么现代罗西尼男高音都不是好的歌唱呢,要从罗西尼本人说起。

从19世纪的严肃歌剧(opera seria)歌剧开始,男高音开始被接受为年轻的情人或英雄的角色代替阉伶(castrato),但更常见的选择是使用隐蔽的女性角色,特别是女低音。这些妇女演唱的角色最初是为阉人歌手写的,但新的角色开始为他们写。对男高音作为情人的偏见仍然存在——在严肃的歌剧中,他们的声音听起来更具有男中音特质,但声音越来越流行。


“男中音高音”(baritone-tenor)被认为是高贵的父亲或对手,但现在开始扮演情人或英雄。尽管如此,罗西尼仍然没有受到这些声音的启发去为他们写浪漫的段落。对他来说,男高音的演唱方式应更为强劲,而不是像发自心底的或充满哀伤的那样。当“男高音”作为英雄或情人征服了更多的角色后,有人必须作为对手取代他。由于缺乏新的声音,罗西尼不得不通过为英雄写更高的声域(tessitura )来区分他们。我们有为“男中音男高音”而写的角色,也有为男高音高音(tenorino)而写的角色,声音更轻。在罗西尼的第一部歌剧中,男高音有一个相当中心的tessitura ,没有太多灵活的段落。对于阿尔盖里的意大利人( L'Italiana in Algeri )来说,这个角色却是取的非常高的,在意大利的伊尔图尔科( Il turco in Italia)也有同样男高音的角色。但在《西维利亚的巴比里》(Il Barbiere di Siviglia )中,男高音的角色又回到了中间的tessitura。这意味着罗西尼是为特定的声音而写作,并尽可能充分利用他们的个人能力。


在研究罗西尼的男高音角色时要记住的一个重要方面是,无论是为男高音还是为男中音写作,音域(tessitura)都不是一程不变保持相等的。男中音也要用假声来唱高音C甚至D,而且都要唱花腔,但是男高音有更多的音程,而且大部分时间都坐得更高。

当罗西尼在1824年搬到巴黎时,他能够与当时法国最伟大的男高音一起工作,并为他们在歌剧中写了几个重要的角色。他的最后一部歌剧,吉劳姆·退尔(Guillaume Tell, 1829),是巴黎大歌剧的一个新流派。音乐装饰少了,唱得更戏剧化了。罗西尼的演唱方法为法国提供了可以与意大利人竞争的歌手。在某种程度上,作曲家能够将世界和传统结合起来。当时,他们在不同的歌唱学校进行了更大的交流,法国歌手在意大利和法国的意大利人都取得了巨大的成功。


到那时,唱歌的艺术很快就发生了变化 (我们将在后续中更详细地讨论这一点)。罗西尼在吉劳姆写完之后就不再创作歌剧了,因为他觉得旧的华丽风格正在被一种紧张的风格所取代,在这种风格下,唱歌变成了嚎叫。对他来说,“歌唱的艺术已经腐朽了”。


歌剧创作留给了贝里尼和多尼采蒂(以及稍后更年轻的威尔第),他们与不断变化的声音和歌唱技术合作,创造新的作品。歌剧正在发生变化,大多数美声唱法作品的圆满结局正让位给浪漫歌剧的悲剧。男高音,现在有了更清晰,响亮的声音,一劳永逸获得了所有的角色,情人或英雄。男高音的声音被认为是年轻人的声音象征。


随之男高音被赋予较少的花腔部分-除非角色是为罗西尼传统的表演者写的。多尼采蒂是那个修复了浪漫男高音真正的tessitura 的人——很高,但不过分,把它传给了威尔第。

说了这么多,我们来比较一下现代三种不同男高音对罗西尼的演绎:

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Nicolai Gedda - adequate: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G2uuTJfQOXY


Juan Diego Florez - good: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Iu_ma50DYZo


Luigi Alva: how it should be done http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4xqRx5ggOqs

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我最喜欢男高音,也非常喜欢罗西尼,但很少有男高音唱得比“还行”更好
。事实上,只有一个男高音-路易吉阿尔瓦 (Luigi Alva)-以应该有的方式演绎了罗西尼男高音角色。
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大多数罗西尼都是男高音歌唱家演唱的,声音太重了(far too heavy a voice)——上面的例子中,Gedda是一个Spinto 男高音歌唱家,与帕瓦罗蒂类型近似。尽管他巧妙地保留了自己的声调和音量,并使之变轻,但他却无法接近演唱这首咏叹调的装饰性。


弗洛雷斯是一个更轻,更灵活的现代抒情男高音-但对罗西尼来说仍然太重的声音-因为尽管他处理着大部分的装饰,但他不能分开音符(notes),尤其是在音程(音阶)中( in the runs (the scales))。


在这些之后听阿尔瓦的会获得一个启示:这就是应该怎么做。快速装饰中的音符是分开的。阿尔瓦并不完美——有时在分开的音符之间会有一种可以听见的渴望——但他是唯一一个能够以应该唱的风格演唱罗西尼的人——在这种风格中,装饰物对音乐的价值做出了巨大贡献。如果听不到这些装饰物的全部价值,音乐就不会显示出它的全部价值。

 

In terms of 装饰音(fioritura), Alva is by far the more capable of them. And for scores like those of Rossini, which call for fioritura, Alva is far more to be preferred.

 

即使罗西尼的威廉·泰尔-这是一个更重的声音的角色(可能是Spinto,像帕瓦罗蒂);但它需要能够唱很多“发自胸部(chest)”的HiC(和类似的)。
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/gilbert_duprez

这些“发自胸部(chest)”的HiC 几乎是现代罗西尼男高音无人能企及的。

 

Mister Opera 对正确与错误歌唱收集了大量对比

我们在期待 Mister Opera 的 a video of “correct” Rossini singing

Rossini singing - MODERN vs. OLD SCHOOL

 

 

MALE VOICE = CHEST VOICE (from bottom to top)

Singers in this video: 1. Mario del Monaco 2. Tom LoMonaco 3. Gino Bechi 4. Mario del Monaco 5. Giuseppe di Stefano 6. Cornell MacNeil 7. Giulio Neri 8. Beniamino Gigli 9. Tom LoMonaco

 

 

"Squillo, or what I call core; the harmonics in the sound comes from chest voice. When chest is weakened so is the squillo. And that is what is happening today with singers. Never mistake chest voice for constriction. That is one of the worst things that has ever happened in the history of voice. Now days teachers equate constriction with chest and therefore lesson chest which thins out and weakens the full voice. Chest voice is the foundation of the whole voice. It has been very much misunderstood and misinterpreted. Men should never lesson chest as they go into the passaggio and up UNLESS singing with softer dynamics. Put another way, men should be able to take full chest from the lowest notes all the way up to the top. The difference is that the cover comes in to help as he enters the passaggio. Chest should not lessen. Now days they are all taught to lessen it which is why voices are smaller and weaker. The old way of singing did not resemble what is taught today. I have heard before that some teachers say that there is a difference in the way the tenor voice works compared to the baritone or bass. That is unequivocally false. I think many of these teachers lure people in with these ideas that they have some inside knowledge others don't. So if you are a tenor it is tempting to believe this information. The baritone, tenor and bass voices work the exact same way. They have the exact same musculature and require the exact same development, balance and efficiency. Each voice has falsetto, chest and headvoice. Each voice has to learn to cover properly. They just cover at different points. A bass may cover at Db4 or D4 while a baritone will cover the E4. Tenors generally cover around F#4. This all depends on the size of each voice also. The main difference between each voice is the length, thickness and mass of the vocal folds. Basses have the largest of each, baritones less and tenors even less. Everything else is the same. So if someone tells you that there are certain tricks to training the different voices they are pulling your leg. There are no differences except range and covering points. One of the most misunderstood things in all of voice is the cover that men sing with. I see so many things written about it that are only partly true or completely off. The cover is not cupo. Cupo is a veiled voice used for effect. The cover happens in the passaggio. It is a muscular switch that happens which involves the vocal vectors. No one talks about the vocal vectors. Tom LoMonaco explained it very well. Picture the larynx held by 4 strings. One on the top, one on the bottom, one in the back and one in the front. There is an up pull, down pull, back pull, and front pull. These vectors must be balanced in order to achieve vocal efficiency. Without going into the exact muscles, what happens in the cover is that the down pull and back pull must be maintained in order to keep the larynx in a stable, lowered position. This keeps the sound dark and full. There is no lessening of chest and absolutely no lessening of squillo/core to the sound. I often hear people say the sound there becomes more "heady" of headvoice like and becomes less full of squillo/core. That is absolutely wrong. None of the great singers did this. They kept intense squillo throughout the range. This comes from the chest. In order to get a full, dark sound all the way up the chest must stay involved which causes this muscular switch. The only time you lessen chest is to sing mezza voce or pianissimo. The confusion comes in because the cricothyroid muscles pull more to stretch the vocal folds as you ascend into the passaggio. That is associated with "falsetto". However, falsetto only vibrates the edges of the vocal folds and leaves out the body. It creates a hooty sound with no core. Therefore chest must remain strong all the way up even with the pull of the cricothyroids which help stretch the vocal cords. People who do not do this end up with an airy sound in the passaggio and up or a thin, light sound. Then they try to get clarity by constricting to bring the vocal folds together. The great singers always tried to maintain full engagement of the voice all the way up, and by keeping the sound dark it caused the cover to happen. They did not lighten the voice. They did not know what was causing this sound, but they did make the sound. The proper knowledge of science explains how they could make these sounds and what should be done and what should not be done. You will hear no lessening of squillo or chest through the passaggio to the top in any of these singers. Instead you hear a bigger more bloomed sound on the top." (J. Silver)




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